In addition, about 30% of all global mineral reserves are found in Africa. The continent's proven oil reserves constitute 8% of the world's stock and those of natural gas amount to 7%. Minerals account for an average of 70% of total African exports and about 28% of gross domestic product.
Africa is blessed with an impressive endowment of mineral wealth, including nearglobal monopolies of platinum, chromium and diamonds; a high proportion of the world's gold, cobalt and manganese reserves; and extensive reserves of bauxite, coal, uranium, copper and nickel.
The case histories of Tin in Jos and Coal in Enugu show clearly that exploitation of these minerals pose numerous environmental hazards. Emphasis should be placed on enforcing the relevant laws guiding mineral exploration and exploitation. In addition, stringent sanctions must also be put in place against violators.
The Effect of Unplanned Exploitation of Environmental Resources: The Nigeria's Experience. Alexander Chinago Budnuka 1,, Aloni Clinton 1, Chukwunma AgiOttoh 2. 1 Department of Social Sciences, Rivers State College Of Arts and Science. 2 Registry Department, College Of Education, (Technical), Omoku, Rivers State
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Jul 12, 2017· SinoAfrican Trade. Economic ties between China and the African continent have deepened as China's economy has thrived. China surpassed the United States as Africa's largest trade partner in 2009. China is a destination for 15 to 16 percent of subSaharan Africa's exports and the source of 14 to 21 percent of the region's imports,...
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to Africa and India,Columbus's discovery of the New World,and the modern gold rushes that led to the settlement of California,Alaska,South Africa, ... Professionally,the ﬁelds of endeavor associated with the mineral industries are linked to the phase or stage in which an activity occurs. Locating and
Minerals in Conflict. Countries rich in minerals such as cobalt, coltan, cassiterite, copper, and gold are often marred by corruption, authoritarian repression, militarization, and civil war. Rebel groups, governments and mining companies exploit mineral resources, fueling civil and interstate conflict as players vie for control over riches.
solid minerals (limestone, clay deposits, crushed rocks), and liquid minerals (Crude oil and its associated gas). These two categories fall into non renewableresources. Renewable resources exploited in the state include agricultural products, water resources, wildlife resources, fishery products and other sea foods. The
Damage to water and water resources is the worst environmental consequence of gold mining. From California's Sierra Nevada in the 1850s to the lands of the Pemon in Venezuela today, people have ruined rivers by using highpressure hoses to spray down the .
Environmental impacts of mining can occur at local, regional, and global scales through direct and indirect mining practices. Impacts can result in erosion, sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, or the contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water by the chemicals emitted from mining processes. These processes also have an impact on the atmosphere from the emissions of carbon which have ...
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